RMT members in Scotland have voted to reject a pay offer from ScotRail, according to Transport Scotland.
The details of the offer have not been published.
Transport Scotland said: ‘This is a disappointing result, particularly in light of the fair and affordable offer made.
‘Any continued industrial action will undoubtedly have negative impacts on passengers which, in turn, has further implications for rail finances. The required timetable changes and cancellations also discourage a return to rail at a time when we are trying to build back patronage.
‘Despite this disappointing outcome, we are still very much committed to working with the RMT union to reach a mutually favourable outcome to this dispute.
‘We would urge all parties to get back round the table as soon as possible so that this can be resolved soonest for the benefit of staff, passengers and the economy.’
The RMT has not commented.